Melatonin is a hormone that, among other actions, controls our sleep-wake cycles. NMN is a key energy transfer molecule within mitochondria, the cell’s energy producers. Both have shown benefit in slowing cognitive decline in experimental animals, and both are sold over the counter.
Here, when aged rats received one or both every other day for a month, they performed better on two cognitive tests, compared to rats receiving no treatment. In rats that received both treatments, mitochondria in brain centers that are responsible for learning and memory functioned better, with less cell death and better energy production.